The Asian Journal of Professional & Business Studies <p>The Asian Journal of Professional and Business Studies (AJPBS) is a collection of scholarly articles published by the Publication Division of the Universiti Poly-Tech Malaysia. The collection of articles was obtained from researchers participating in various academy activities, such as conferences, innovation competitions, and year-end projects. This journal contains articles that have never been published in any other publication. AJPBS contains various articles dealing with knowledge from business, accounting, and management. All articles will go through a blind peer-review process once they meet the basic requirements set by the journals.</p> Universiti Poly-Tech Malaysia en-US The Asian Journal of Professional & Business Studies 2716-666X Perceived Academic Stress among TESL Students in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA Ipoh <p>The upcoming generation of leaders, represented by students, plays a crucial role in <br>governing the country. However, their tertiary education life is significantly influenced by <br>academic and social pressures, which can lead to stress. This stress may manifest in severe <br>consequences such as suicidal thoughts, drug addiction, and dropping out of college. <br>Academic stress, arising from factors like lecturers, assignments, and peer interactions, is a <br>key contributor to more profound issues like depression and anxiety. This paper aims to <br>assess the level of academic stress among 421 future holders of a Diploma in TESL Kolej <br>Poly-Tech MARA Ipoh. Survey results were analyzed to gauge stress levels associated with <br>different stressors. The findings indicate that students predominantly experience heightened <br>academic stress linked to outcomes, tests, peer interactions, and self-imposed pressure. These <br>results offer insights for students, educators, and universities to identify and address <br>academic stress issues, with implications for future research.</p> Nurulhayati Ilias Nazirul Azwan Abdul Rahim Siti Noor Azilah Mohd Nawi Nurul Aini Sairuni Ily Athirah Mukhtar Nasrah Hassan Basri Mohamad Shafiq Ramli Copyright (c) 2023 Nurulhayati Ilias, Nazirul Azwan Abdul Rahim, Siti Noor Azilah Mohd Nawi, Nurul Aini Sairuni, Ily Athirah Mukhtar, Nasrah Hassan Basri, Mohamad Shafiq Ramli 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.127 The Relationship between Macroeconomic Variable in Indonesia: Study of Economic Growth, Export, Import, Labor and Inflation <p>The objective of this study is to assess the potential for mutual relationships and co-integration among variables such as economic growth, exports, imports, labor, and inflation in Indonesia, using secondary time series data covering the period from 1985 to 2022. The approach applied in this research involves the use of Vector Autoregression (VAR), encompassing Granger Causality and Johansen Co-Integration Test. Subsequently, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation and forecast analysis are conducted using Impulse Response Function, Variance Error Decomposition, and Forecasting. The results of the Granger Causality test indicate that there is only a unidirectional relationship between economic growth to imports, while there is no significant unidirectional relationship from other variables. The results of the Johansen Co-Integration test suggest that these variables have long-term relationships or are co-integrated. Based on the forecasting results, the research can be applied over the period from 1985 to 2037.</p> M. Julian Tama Neli Aida Arivina Ratih Yulihar Taher Copyright (c) 2023 M. Julian Tama, Neli Aida, Arivina Ratih Yulihar Taher 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.125 Virtual Reality Acceptance in Cosmetic Product: A Study Among Young Working Girls in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. <p>Virtual Reality (VR) refers to a computer-generated immersive experience that creates humandigital interaction and its ability to provide three-dimensional (3D) visual experiences which <br>simulate the sensation of living information on cosmetic products. This technology has gained <br>major attention, especially in the Malaysian cosmetic industry over the recent years due to its <br>ability to provide users with an interactive experience. The usual way of getting information on <br>cosmetic products is time-consuming and costly as this conventional method requires human <br>interaction. Virtual reality offers an innovative method for sharing information about cosmetic <br>products, eliminating the need for young working girls to be physically present at a specific <br>location to access this information. VR is an emerging technology with a large potential for <br>business opportunity especially in the cosmetic industry. The consumer's willingness to buy <br>cosmetic products from an e-commerce company also has consequences in digitalisation <br>purchasing intention. The study aims to recognise the acceptance and use of VR in cosmetic <br>product information among young working girls in Petaling Jaya, Selangor. The study applied a <br>non-probability convenience sampling method, where the questionnaire was distributed to a <br>group of 300 young working girls in various locations at Petaling Jaya. The study shows that <br>Virtual Reality Hedonic Motivation with Pearson Correlation r=.738 is the highest factor <br>influencing the use of Behavioural Intention that leads towards acceptance and use of VR in <br>getting information on cosmetic products. This result indicated that young working girls are <br>accepting VR as an alternative method of gaining product information. The results of VR <br>acceptance will be incorporated into existing literature to assist future researchers in enhancing <br>VR as an alternative means of obtaining information about cosmetic products, particularly <br>within the context of Malaysia</p> Aris Abdul Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 Aris Abdul Rahman 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.132 Households Intention to Formally Dispose E-waste Using Theory Planned Behavior <p>Electronic waste or e-waste is a global issue that continues to escalate. The e-waste contains hazardous materials, which could lead to health issues and pollution if improperly disposed. The most common e-waste sources are household appliances namely refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, radios, televisions, and telecommunications devices containing electric or electronic parts. Each e-waste item also encompasses valuable materials that will profit the business, which in turn can benefit the growth of the economy besides the preservation of resources. This study refers to the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a heuristic guideline to investigate the intention to formally dispose of e-waste among residents at Taman Bahau, Negeri Sembilan. As this study applied a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was utilized as the primary data collection tool, and three hundred seventy-five (375) respondents were selected using a convenience sampling technique to partake in the survey. The demographic characteristics and profiling of the respondents were analyzed using descriptive analysis. In contrast, regression analysis was employed to examine the contribution of variables towards the intention to dispose of e-waste formally. The finding shows the attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls constructed towards the intention to dispose of e-waste formally. The result also implies that perceived&nbsp;behavioural control explains the most variance in the respondents' intention to dispose of their e-waste items formally, compared to other variables. This research holds significance as it can enhance community awareness and encourage relevant stakeholders to find solutions to protect the environment from the detrimental consequences of improperly discarded electronic waste</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nik Madeeha Nik Mohd Munir Nur Farihin Abd Hadi Khan Nurul Izyan Mat Daud Nor Asma Ahmad Fatihah Mohd Copyright (c) 2023 Nik Madeeha Nik Mohd Munir, Nur Farihin Abd Hadi Khan, Nurul Izyan Mat Daud, Nor Asma Ahmad, Fatihah Mohd 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.123 Validity and Reliability of Lecturer Leadership Styles Questionnaires <p>In the modern age, leadership is one of the teaching competencies in teaching and learning that influences students’ engagement in higher learning. However, leadership styles demonstrated by lecturers may be interpreted differently across different cultures and populations. Hence, there is a need to establish new instrumentation with strong validity and reliability evidence of lecturer leadership styles questionnaire according to the sample size, language, and acceptance of respondents. This study involved undergraduate students of the Faculty of Sport Science, UiTM from the Arau, Shah Alam, Seremban 3, and Jengka campuses. There are 410 undergraduate students involved in this study. There are 44 items of the Lecturer Leadership Styles Questionnaire undergone the process of constructing validity and reliability by employing the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Cronbach Alpha model. After going through the process, 37 items of the Lecturer Leadership Styles Questionnaire were accepted and the rest were dropped out. To verify the factor structure of a set of observed variables, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was employed in the Leadership Styles Questionnaire. CFA analysis depicted the sample data fit the measurement model of Leadership Styles (RMSEA = .050, GFI = .942, AGFI = .917, TLI = .983, NFI = .969). In a nutshell, the Lecturer Leadership Styles Questionnaire instrument with strong validity and reliable evidence can be used for further study in a similar setting.</p> Muhammad Faizal Kutip Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Faizal Kutip 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.130 A Conceptual Framework of the influence of strategic alignment capability (SAC) and VUCA model as moderator in navigation leadership <p><em><strong>Purpose:</strong></em><em> This study intends to investigate the influence of strategic alignment capability (SAC) and volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous (VUCA) as moderator on navigation leadership in private hospitals of healthcare sector in Pakistan. Utilizing ventakraman’s model of strategic alignment capability and volatility-ambiguity theory by Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus, the research hopes to identify the impact of SAC model and VUCA moderator on navigation leadership in healthcare sector in Pakistan. </em></p> <p><strong>Design/Methodology/Approach: </strong>A total of 400 healthcare executives from the healthcare industry will participate in this study by completing an online self-filled questionnaire. The collected data will undergo various statistical analyses, including normality tests, reliability assessments, correlation analyses, and descriptive examinations. These analyses shall be employed to determine the connection between independent variables (strategic alignment capability model) and the dependent variable of navigation leadership along with volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous context as moderator variable.</p> <p><em><strong>Findings: </strong></em><em>The research paper serves as a conceptual framework of influence of strategic alignment capability and volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous context as moderator on navigation leadership. Healthcare leaders have the potential to significantly enhance their productivity, making valuable contributions to their respective fields in the healthcare profession. The study underlines the significance of addressing these sensitive elements of healthcare sector to enhance the performance in the Pakistan healthcare sector.</em></p> <p><strong>Practical Implications:</strong> This study offers valuable insights for healthcare leadership within the developing countries like Pakistan healthcare industry. By recognizing and fostering influence of strategic alignment capability and vuca moderator on navigation leadership in healthcare sector can create an environment where healthcare leaders are more inclined to increase their productivity and positively impact overall healthcare sector success.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> The originality of this study lies in its application of venkatraman’s model of strategic alignment capability and <em>volatility-ambiguity theory by Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus</em> within the specific context of the Pakistan healthcare industry. By identifying the unique factors influencing strategic alignment capability model in navigation leadership along with vuca moderator in to evaluate and enhance the performance in this industry, this research contributes to a deeper understanding of the relationship between strategic alignment capability and navigation leadership moderating vuca context.</p> Salman Sarwar Copyright (c) 2023 Salman Sarwar 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.82 Enhancing Secondary Education: A Mobile Application for Student Performance Monitoring and Curriculum Management <p>In the realm of modern education, the challenge of managing student information in schools, <br>especially with a growing population, has been a longstanding issue. With the prevalence of <br>mobile devices, particularly among students under the age of 17, leveraging technology to <br>streamline data management has become critical. This study introduces the Monitoring <br>Student Performance in Learning and Curriculum App, a mobile application designed for <br>both students and teachers in secondary schools. The major goal is to improve student <br>performance and facilitate more effective learning management. Utilizing the waterfall <br>methodology, the development of this system progresses through five fundamental phases: <br>requirement, design, implementation, testing, and deployment. This application intends to <br>proactively solve the issues associated with paper-based data storage by empowering <br>teachers to monitor student performance and involvement in lessons and curriculum, thereby <br>fostering a more efficient educational environment.</p> Ahmad Nasyran Amran Khairatul Alyani Badari Nor Hafiza Abd Samad Ab Arif Sanusi Arifin Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmad Nasyran Amran, Khairatul Alyani Badari, Nor Hafiza Abd Samad , Ab Arif Sanusi Arifin 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.128 The Strategy of Growing the Rubber Processing Industry Subsector as a Competitive Agro Industry Commodity for the Regional Economy of Jambi Province <p>The growth of the processing industrial sector in Jambi province shows a decline, where the <br>contribution of the industrial sector is quite worrying considering that the industrial sector is <br>expected to play a role in encouraging economic growth, alleviating poverty, and creating jobs <br>to reduce the high level of unemployment. Regional industrial development efforts mean that <br>each region has superior commodities that illustrate the region's potential or ability to produce <br>products, create added value, utilize resources, provide employment opportunities, generate <br>income for the community and local government, and have prospects for increasing <br>productivity and investment. The decline in contribution and the relatively small growth of <br>industry must receive special attention from the government to encourage the industry again <br>and prevent deindustrialization Jambi Province is the fourth largest rubber-producing region <br>in the country, after South Sumatra, North Sumatra, and Riau. In 2021, land use in Jambi <br>Province will still be dominated by plantation commodities with a contribution of 21.3 percent. <br>Rubber production in Jambi will be 310 thousand tons in 2021. In 2021, the number of rubber <br>farmers in Jambi Province will be 154,834 people, (National Leading Plantation Statistics, <br>2019-2021) this research aims to analyze the determinants of growth and development of the <br>rubber processing industry subsector as a competitive agro-industry commodity for the <br>regional economy of Jambi Province and to analyze the competitiveness of the rubber <br>processing industry sub-sector as an agro-industry commodity for the regional economy of <br>Jambi Province and its growth strategy. The analytical tools used to analyze the determinants <br>of growth and development of the rubber processing industry subsector in the Jambi area are <br>the Simultaneous Equation Model, Simple Regression, Revealed Comparative Advantage <br>(RCA), and the Analytical Network Process (ANP) Method</p> Erfit Jaya Kusuma Edy Erni Achmad Copyright (c) 2023 Erfit, Jaya Kusuma Edy, Erni Achmad 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.126 Concept Paper on Perceived Risk and Online Purchase Intentions: The Role of Profession. <p>The purpose of this study will be to investigate the impact of perceived risk on online purchase intentions among online shoppers in Malaysia, while also examining the role of profession as a moderating factor in this relationship. A quantitative approach will be adopted, utilizing a survey method to collect primary data from individuals who have engaged in online shopping within the preceding three months. The collected data will be subject to analysis employing descriptive statistics and various inferential statistical techniques, including correlation analysis, regression analysis, ANOVA, and t-test. The findings of this study are expected to reveal that perceived risk will hurt online purchase intentions, and that professional identity and norms will moderate this relationship. Moreover, the study will offer implications for online retailers and marketers seeking to target young professionals in Malaysia, with strategies to align products and services to meet their specific needs and expectations. Additionally, these strategies will reduce perceived risk while fostering trust and loyalty among this demographic. Lastly, the study will suggest directions for future research in this area.</p> Mohd Huzaimie Ahmad Kafrawi Syahida Abd Aziz Nur Hani Syazwani Bakri Copyright (c) 2023 Mohd Huzaimie Ahmad Kafrawi, Syahida Abd Aziz, Nur Hani Syazwani Bakri 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.133 Building a Safer Future: The Impact of Safety Leadership and Safety Competency in The Construction Industry. <p>The Malaysian construction industry has experienced a concerning trend, ranking fifth in <br>accidents from 2017 to 2021 and witnessing the highest number of fatal workplace injuries <br>compared to other sectors. This study aimed to investigate the influence of safety leadership <br>and safety competency on safety culture within the construction industry. To conduct the <br>research, data were collected from 385 supervisors, engineers, and project managers <br>employed by Grade G7 contractors registered with the Malaysian Construction Industry <br>Development Board (CIDB) in four Peninsular Malaysia states. A systematic random <br>sampling method was employed, and data analysis was carried out using SmartPLS 4. The <br>study's findings underscore the significance of both safety leadership and safety competency <br>in positively impacting safety culture within the construction industry. The practical <br>implications of these findings suggest that contractors should prioritize safety leadership and <br>allocate resources to safety training and development initiatives. By enhancing employees' <br>safety competencies, organizations can contribute to the establishment of a robust safety <br>culture, ultimately addressing the industry's safety challenges. This research sheds light on <br>crucial factors that can contribute to improving safety outcomes in the Malaysian <br>construction industry</p> Hamizi Hamdan Rosli Mahmood Raemah Abdullah Hashim Nur Shazwani Rosli Copyright (c) 2023 Hamizi Hamdan, Rosli Mahmood, Raemah Abdullah Hashim, Nur Shazwani Rosli 2023-12-28 2023-12-28 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.124 A Conceptual Framework for Studying Technology Adoption of Malaysian SME Retailers. <p>This paper is fundamentally a conceptual paper, the purpose of which is to propose a framework for researchers to study technology adoption of small and medium enterprise retailers (SMERs) in Malaysia by combining the dimensions of system-specific approach and latent personality dimensions. which focuses on existing theoretical frameworks and paradigms in the study of technology adoption of SMERs. However, the paper also draws on the database of reviews of past studies conducted in the field of technology adoption and identifies two fundamental paradigms- the system-specific approach and the latent personality dimensions approach. The paper also draws upon the empirical findings of these studies to determine and define the elements of the proposed conceptual framework. The available empirical data from the conclusions of the existing research studies, therefore, are bound by the limits of these two paradigms. This paper proposes a conceptual framework and a language which scholars can utilize to take a more holistic approach, which bridges the gap between the two existing paradigms. The study has a theoretical contribution as it aims to propose a new model for the technology adoption of SMERs by incorporating the system-specific paradigm and the latent personality behavior paradigm. The second theoretical contribution of this framework is that it can test the moderating effect of latent personality dimensions. Furthermore, the paper is also in alignment with the Government of Malaysia’s National 4IR Policy. This paper modifies three existing theoretical frameworks- TAM, TOE, and TRI, thereby, proposing a new conceptual model for technology adoption of SMERs</p> Anif Raza Haider Suharni Maulan Copyright (c) 2023 Anif Raza Haider, Suharni Maulan 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.131 Integrating Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explore Young Private Sector Employees’ Retirement Planning Behaviour <p>The concern surrounding retirement planning has become a prominent source of concern among the younger labour force in Malaysia. A substantial percentage of individuals between the ages of 18 and 40, who are employed in the private sector, rely on the Employee Provident Fund (EPF) as a means of saving for their retirement. The government's COVID-19 policy&nbsp;allowed for the withdrawal of money, leading to a reduction in savings levels for this particular group. The increasing incidence of bankruptcy cases and insufficient reserves is a worrisome factor for the future survival prospects of upcoming generations. Although several retirement initiatives have been introduced by governmental agencies and financial institutions, a significant number of young Malaysians still lack the necessary dedication to start saving for retirement at an early stage. According to the existing data, people are more likely to spend money than to save it. This study seeks to examine the factors that influence the retirement planning behaviour of young adults in Malaysia. The study suggests that spending attitude and financial literacy are dependent variables, whereas saving intention acts as a mediating variable, and retirement planning behaviour is also a dependent variable. The objective of this study is to enhance the current body of knowledge by developing a theoretical framework that explains the role of saving intention as a mediator between financial literacy and saving attitude in the context of retirement planning behaviour. According to the theory of planned behaviour, the desire to engage in saving behaviour is influenced by both financial literacy and attitudes towards saving. The characteristic that has the strongest link with retirement planning activities is the individual's level of saving intention. The suggested recommendations for further investigation are delineated.</p> Suriana Ramli Nur Fadhilah Hani Husain Herwina Rosnan Copyright (c) 2023 Suriana Ramli, Nur Fadhilah Hani Husain, Associate Professor 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.118 The Effect of Control on The Prevention of Online Examination Fraud. <p>The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of controls and heavy punishment on the<br>prevention of online examination fraud for professional students at one of the universities in <br>Malaysia. The study has listed five potential key factors as follows: (1) identity verification, <br>(2) monitoring, (3) toilet visit procedures, (4) punishment, and (5) embarrassment. The <br>students were given the questionnaire. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were <br>performed on the data collected from the respondent. The results of the analyses have shown <br>that certain controls, such as monitoring and punishment, have a positive impact on the <br>prevention of online examination fraud in the university. Whereas the other controls, which <br>are identity verification, toilet visit procedures, and embarrassment, do not significantly have <br>a positive impact on the prevention of online examination fraud at the university. This study <br>contributes to higher education by providing additional beneficial information that could <br>strengthen their control and also enhance their punishment in preventing the occurrence of <br>online examination fraud. This, in turn, will improve the quality of their graduates and <br>eventually the image of the university.</p> Sheikh Muhammad Faris Jamil Azhar Azwanis Azemi Muhammad Asyraf Haziq Rossli Muhammad Syazwan Nadzri Copyright (c) 2023 Sheikh Muhammad Faris Jamil Azhar, Azwanis Azemi, Muhammad Asyraf Haziq Rossli , Muhammad Syazwan Nadzri 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.129 BOARD GOVERNANCE, EARNINGS MANAGEMENT, AND FIRM FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW FROM THE PERSPECTIVES OF EMERGING ECONOMIES <p>The attainment of financial sustainability is of paramount importance for firms since it guarantees their enduring viability and achievement. It enables organisations to navigate periods of economic decline, allocate resources towards expansion prospects, and fulfill their commitments to employees and stakeholders. By focusing on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), this study aims to draw a conceptual framework for how board governance affects firm financial sustainability with the mediating effects of earnings management. This study expects board governance to be the significant determinant of firm financial sustainability, and earnings management will act as a key player in the relationship. To the best of our knowledge, this is a unique study that considers the mediating effects of earnings management in the association between board governance and firm financial sustainability. The result of this study will be useful for the regulators in enhancing the board governance issues to deter earnings management and to improve firm financial sustainability. The study will also add value as a battery for future research and studies, particularly in the context of board governance and financial sustainability relationships in emerging as well as developing economies with similar economic perspectives.&nbsp;</p> Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder Mohamad Ali Abdul Hamid Bany Ariffin Amin Noordin Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Tofael Hossain Majumder, Mohamad Ali Abdul Hamid , Bany Ariffin Amin Noordin 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 4 2 10.61688/ajpbs.v4i2.73